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Introduction - Slovakia:

BackgroundThe dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the close of World War I allowed the Slovaks to join the closely related Czechs to form Czechoslovakia. Following the chaos of World War II, Czechoslovakia became a Communist nation within Soviet-ruled Eastern Europe. Soviet influence collapsed in 1989 and Czechoslovakia once more became free. The Slovaks and the Czechs agreed to separate peacefully on 1 January 1993. Slovakia joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004.

Location - Slovakia:
LocationCentral Europe, south of Poland

Geographic coordinates48 40 N, 19 30 E

Map referencesEurope

Areatotal: 48,845 sq km
land: 48,800 sq km
water: 45 sq km

Area comparativeabout twice the size of New Hampshire

Land boundariestotal: 1,524 km
border countries: Austria 91 km, Czech Republic 215 km, Hungary 677 km, Poland 444 km, Ukraine 97 km

Coastline0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)

Climatetemperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

Terrainrugged mountains in the central and northern part and lowlands in the south

Elevation extremeslowest point: Bodrok River 94 m
highest point: Gerlachovsky Stit 2,655 m

Natural resourcesbrown coal and lignite; small amounts of iron ore, copper and manganese ore; salt; arable land

Land usearable land: 29.23%
permanent crops: 2.67%
other: 68.1% (2005)

Irrigated land1,830 sq km (2003)

Natural hazardsNA

Environment current issuesair pollution from metallurgical plants presents human health risks; acid rain damaging forests

Environment international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography notelandlocked; most of the country is rugged and mountainous; the Tatra Mountains in the north are interspersed with many scenic lakes and valleys

People - Slovakia:
Population5,447,502 (July 2007 est.)

Age structure0-14 years: 16.4% (male 456,105/female 435,154)
15-64 years: 71.5% (male 1,938,846/female 1,955,382)
65 years and over: 12.2% (male 247,728/female 414,287) (2007 est.)

Median agetotal: 36.1 years
male: 34.5 years
female: 37.9 years (2007 est.)

Population growth rate0.147% (2007 est.)

Birth rate10.65 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Death rate9.48 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Net migration rate0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.048 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.992 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.598 male(s)/female
total population: 0.942 male(s)/female (2007 est.)

Infant mortality ratetotal: 7.12 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 8.32 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.87 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)

Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 74.95 years
male: 71 years
female: 79.11 years (2007 est.)

Total fertility rate1.33 children born/woman (2007 est.)

Hiv aids adult prevalence rateless than 0.1% (2001 est.)

Hiv aids people living with hiv aidsless than 200 (2003 est.)

Hiv aids deathsless than 100 (2001 est.)

Nationalitynoun: Slovak(s)
adjective: Slovak

Ethnic groupsSlovak 85.8%, Hungarian 9.7%, Roma 1.7%, Ruthenian/Ukrainian 1%, other and unspecified 1.8% (2001 census)

ReligionsRoman Catholic 68.9%, Protestant 10.8%, Greek Catholic 4.1%, other or unspecified 3.2%, none 13% (2001 census)

LanguagesSlovak (official) 83.9%, Hungarian 10.7%, Roma 1.8%, Ukrainian 1%, other or unspecified 2.6% (2001 census)

Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.6%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.6% (2001 est.)

Government - Slovakia:
Country nameconventional long form: Slovak Republic
conventional short form: Slovakia
local long form: Slovenska Republika
local short form: Slovensko

Government typeparliamentary democracy

Capitalname: Bratislava
geographic coordinates: 48 09 N, 17 07 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions8 regions (kraje, singular - kraj); Banskobystricky kraj, Bratislavsky kraj, Kosicky kraj, Nitriansky kraj, Presovsky kraj, Trenciansky kraj, Trnavsky kraj, Zilinsky kraj

Independence1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia)

National holidayConstitution Day, 1 September (1992)

Constitutionratified 1 September 1992, effective 1 January 1993; changed in September 1998 to allow direct election of the president; amended February 2001 to allow Slovakia to apply for NATO and EU membership

Legal systemcivil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; legal code modified to comply with the obligations of Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory

Suffrage18 years of age; universal

Executive branchchief of state: President Ivan GASPAROVIC (since 15 June 2004)
head of government: Prime Minister Robert FICO (since 4 July 2006); Deputy Prime Ministers Dusan CAPLOVIC, Robert KALINAK, Stefan HARABIN, Jan MIKOLAJ (since 4 July 2006)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 3 April and 17 April 2004 (next to be held in April 2009); following National Council elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president
election results: Ivan GASPAROVIC elected president in runoff; percent of vote - Ivan GASPAROVIC 59.9%, Vladimir MECIAR 40.1%

Legislative branchunicameral National Council of the Slovak Republic or Narodna Rada Slovenskej Republiky (150 seats; members are elected on the basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 17 June 2006 (next to be held in 2010)
election results: percent of vote by party - Smer 29.1%, SDKU 18.4%, SMK 11.7%, SNS 11.7%, LS-HZDS 8.8%, KDH 8.3%, other 12%; seats by party - Smer 50, SDKU 31, SMK 20, SNS 19, LS-HZDS 16, KDH 14

Judicial branchSupreme Court (judges are elected by the National Council); Constitutional Court (judges appointed by president from group of nominees approved by the National Council); Special Court (judges elected by a council of judges and appointed by president)

Political parties and leadersParties in the Parliament: Christian Democratic Movement or KDH [Pavol HRUSOVSKY]; Direction-Social Democracy or Smer-SD [Robert FICO]; Party of the Hungarian Coalition or SMK [Bela BUGAR]; Peoples Party - Movement for a Democratic Slovakia or LS-HZDS [Vladimir MECIAR]; Slovak Democratic and Christian Union or SDKU-DS [Mikulas DZURINDA]; Slovak National Party or SNS [Jan SLOTA]; Parties outside the Parliament: Agrarian Party of the Provinces or ASV [Jozef VASKEBA]; Civic Conservative Party or OKS [Peter TATAR]; Free Forum [Zuzana MARTINAKOVA]; Hope or NADEJ [Alexandra NOVOTNA]; Left-wing Bloc or LB [Jozef KALMAN]; Mission 21 - New Christian Democracy or MISIA 21 [Ivan SIMKO]; Movement for Democracy or HZD [Jozef GRAPA]; New Citizens Alliance or ANO [Pavol RUSKO]; Party of the Democratic Left or SDL [Ladislav KOZMON]; Prosperita Slovenska or PS [Frantisek A. ZVRSKOVEC]; Slovak Communist Party or KSS [Vladimir DADO]; Slovak National Coalition or SLNKO [Vitazoslav MORIC]; Slovak Peoples Party or SLS [Jozef SASIK]; Union of the Workers of Slovakia or ZRS [Jan LUPTAK]

Political pressure groups and leadersFederation of Employers Associations of the Slovak Republic; Association of Towns and Villages or ZMOS; Confederation of Trade Unions or KOZ; National Union of Employers or RUZ; Slovak Chamber of Commerce and Industry or SOPK; Entrepreneurs Association of Slovakia or ZPS; The Business Alliance of Slovakia or PAS

International organization participationACCT (observer), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNIDO, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the uschief of mission: Ambassador Rastislav KACER
chancery: 3523 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 237-1054
FAX: [1] (202) 237-6438
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the uschief of mission: Ambassador Rodolphe Skip M. VALLEE
embassy: Hviezdoslavovo Namestie 4, 81102 Bratislava
mailing address: P.O. Box 309, 814 99 Bratislava
telephone: [421] (2) 5443-3338
FAX: [421] (2) 5443-0096

Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red superimposed with the coat of arms of Slovakia (consisting of a red shield bordered in white and bearing a white Cross of Lorraine surmounting three blue hills); the coat of arms is centered vertically and offset slightly to the hoist side

Economy - Slovakia:
Economy overviewSlovakia has mastered much of the difficult transition from a centrally planned economy to a modern market economy. The DZURINDA government made excellent progress during 2001-04 in macroeconomic stabilization and structural reform. Major privatizations are nearly complete, the banking sector is almost completely in foreign hands, and the government has helped facilitate a foreign investment boom with business friendly policies such as labor market liberalization and a 19% flat tax. Foreign investment in the automotive sector has been strong. Slovakias economic growth exceeded expectations in 2001-06 despite the general European slowdown. Unemployment, at an unacceptable 18% in 2003-04, dropped to 10.2% in 2006 but remains the economys Achilles heel. Slovakia joined the EU on 1 May 2004.

Gdp purchasing power parity $99.19 billion (2006 est.)

Gdp official exchange rate $47.72 billion (2006 est.)

Gdp real growth rate8.3% (2006 est.)

Gdp per capita ppp $18,200 (2006 est.)

Gdp composition by sectoragriculture: 3.8%
industry: 31.4%
services: 64.8% (2006 est.)

Labor force2.629 million (2006 est.)

Labor force by occupationagriculture 5.8%, industry 29.3%, construction 9%, services 55.9% (2003)

Unemployment rate10.2% (2006 est.)

Population below poverty line21% (2002)

Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 3.1%
highest 10%: 20.9% (1996)

Distribution of family income gini index25.8 (1996)

Inflation rate consumer prices 4.4% (2006 est.)

Investment gross fixed 27.6% of GDP (2006 est.)

Budgetrevenues: $24.57 billion
expenditures: $26.14 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2006 est.)

Public debt36.1% of GDP (2006 est.)

Agriculture productsgrains, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit; pigs, cattle, poultry; forest products

Industriesmetal and metal products; food and beverages; electricity, gas, coke, oil, nuclear fuel; chemicals and manmade fibers; machinery; paper and printing; earthenware and ceramics; transport vehicles; textiles; electrical and optical apparatus; rubber products

Industrial production growth rate7.8% (2006 est.)

Electricity production31.29 billion kWh (2005)

Electricity consumption28.57 billion kWh (2005)

Electricity exports11.29 billion kWh (2005)

Electricity imports8.57 billion kWh (2005)

Oil production11,480 bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil consumption74,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil exports77,660 bbl/day (2004)

Oil imports138,200 bbl/day (2004)

Oil proved reserves9 million bbl (1 January 2006)

Natural gas production135 million cu m (2005 est.)

Natural gas consumption6 billion cu m (2005 est.)

Natural gas exports1 million cu m (2005 est.)

Natural gas imports6.5 billion cu m (2005 est.)

Natural gas proved reserves15.01 billion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)

Current account balance-$3.781 billion (2006 est.)

Exports$39.64 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports commoditiesvehicles 25.9%, machinery and electrical equipment 21.3%, base metals 14.6%, chemicals and minerals 10.1%, plastics 5.4% (2004)

Exports partnersGermany 23.7%, Czech Republic 14.1%, Italy 6.5%, Poland 6.2%, Austria 6%, Hungary 5.8%, France 4.3%, Netherlands 4.2% (2006)

Imports$41.84 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Imports commoditiesmachinery and transport equipment 41.1%, intermediate manufactured goods 19.3%, fuels 12.3%, chemicals 9.8%, miscellaneous manufactured goods 10.2% (2003)

Imports partnersGermany 23.6%, Czech Republic 18.2%, Russia 11%, Hungary 6%, Austria 5.5%, Poland 4.9%, Italy 4.4% (2006)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$15.75 billion (2006 est.)

Debt external$31.5 billion (30 June 2006 est.)

Economic aid recipient$12.67 billion in available EU structural adjustment and cohesion funds (2007-13)

Currency code Slovak koruna (SKK)

Exchange rateskoruny per US dollar - 29.611 (2006), 31.018 (2005), 32.257 (2004), 36.773 (2003), 45.327 (2002)

Communications - Slovakia:
Fiscal yearcalendar year

Telephones main lines in use1.167 million (2006)

Telephones mobile cellular4.893 million (2006)

Telephone systemgeneral assessment: Slovakia has a modern telecommunications system that has expanded dramatically in recent years with the growth in cellular services
domestic: analog system is now receiving digital equipment and is being enlarged with fiber-optic cable, especially in the larger cities; 3 companies provide nationwide cellular services
international: country code - 421; 3 international exchanges (1 in Bratislava and 2 in Banska Bystrica) are available; Slovakia is participating in several international telecommunications projects that will increase the availability of external services (2006)

Radio broadcast stationsAM 15, FM 78, shortwave 2 (1998)

Television broadcast stations80 (national broadcasting 6, regional 7, local 67) (2004)

Internet country code.sk

Internet hosts210,758 (2006)

Internet users2.256 million (2006)

Transportation - Slovakia:
Airports36 (2006)

Airports with paved runwaystotal: 18
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 8 (2006)

Airports with unpaved runwaystotal: 18
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 8 (2006)

Heliports1 (2006)

Pipelinesgas 6,769 km; oil 416 km (2006)

Railwaystotal: 3,662 km
broad gauge: 100 km 1.520-m gauge
standard gauge: 3,512 km 1.435-m gauge (1,588 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 50 km (1.000-m or 0.750-m gauge) (2006)

Roadwaystotal: 42,993 km
paved: 37,533 km (includes 316 km of expressways)
unpaved: 5,460 km (2004)

Waterways172 km (on Danube River) (2005)

Merchant marinetotal: 43 ships (1000 GRT or over) 217,819 GRT/309,049 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 6, cargo 36, chemical tanker 1
foreign-owned: 40 (Bulgaria 7, Estonia 1, Greece 4, Israel 7, Poland 2, Syria 2, Turkey 8, UK 1, Ukraine 8)
registered in other countries: 2 (Cyprus 1, Georgia 1) (2006)

Ports and terminalsBratislava, Komarno

Military - Slovakia:
Military branchesArmed Forces of the Slovak Republic (Ozbrojene Sily Slovenskej Republiky): Land Forces (Pozemne Sily), Air Forces (Vzdusne Sily), Training and Support Forces (Vycviku a Podpory Sily) (2005)

Military service age and obligation17 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished in 2006; women are eligible to serve (2006)

Manpower available for military servicemales age 18-49: 1,351,848
females age 18-49: 1,322,647 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military servicemales age 18-49: 1,089,645
females age 18-49: 1,093,077 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annuallymales age 18-49: 41,544
females age 18-49: 40,183 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures percent of gdp1.87% (2005 est.)

Disputes internationalbilateral government, legal, technical and economic working group negotiations continued in 2006 between Slovakia and Hungary over Hungarys completion of its portion of the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros hydroelectric dam project along the Danube; as a member state that forms part of the EUs external border, Slovakia must implement the strict Schengen border rules

This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>