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Introduction - Norway:

BackgroundTwo centuries of Viking raids into Europe tapered off following the adoption of Christianity by King Olav TRYGGVASON in 994. Conversion of the Norwegian kingdom occurred over the next several decades. In 1397, Norway was absorbed into a union with Denmark that lasted more than four centuries. In 1814, Norwegians resisted the cession of their country to Sweden and adopted a new constitution. Sweden then invaded Norway but agreed to let Norway keep its constitution in return for accepting the union under a Swedish king. Rising nationalism throughout the 19th century led to a 1905 referendum granting Norway independence. Although Norway remained neutral in World War I, it suffered heavy losses to its shipping. Norway proclaimed its neutrality at the outset of World War II, but was nonetheless occupied for five years by Nazi Germany (1940-45). In 1949, neutrality was abandoned and Norway became a member of NATO. Discovery of oil and gas in adjacent waters in the late 1960s boosted Norways economic fortunes. The current focus is on containing spending on the extensive welfare system and planning for the time when petroleum reserves are depleted. In referenda held in 1972 and 1994, Norway rejected joining the EU.

Location - Norway:
LocationNorthern Europe, bordering the North Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Sweden

Geographic coordinates62 00 N, 10 00 E

Map referencesEurope

Areatotal: 323,802 sq km
land: 307,442 sq km
water: 16,360 sq km

Area comparativeslightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundariestotal: 2,542 km
border countries: Finland 727 km, Sweden 1,619 km, Russia 196 km

Coastline25,148 km (includes mainland 2,650 km, as well as long fjords, numerous small islands, and minor indentations 22,498 km; length of island coastlines 58,133 km)

Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 10 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm

Climatetemperate along coast, modified by North Atlantic Current; colder interior with increased precipitation and colder summers; rainy year-round on west coast

Terrainglaciated; mostly high plateaus and rugged mountains broken by fertile valleys; small, scattered plains; coastline deeply indented by fjords; arctic tundra in north

Elevation extremeslowest point: Norwegian Sea 0 m
highest point: Galdhopiggen 2,469 m

Natural resourcespetroleum, natural gas, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, titanium, pyrites, nickel, fish, timber, hydropower

Land usearable land: 2.7%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 97.3% (2005)

Irrigated land1,270 sq km (2003)

Natural hazardsrockslides, avalanches

Environment current issueswater pollution; acid rain damaging forests and adversely affecting lakes, threatening fish stocks; air pollution from vehicle emissions

Environment international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography noteabout two-thirds mountains; some 50,000 islands off its much indented coastline; strategic location adjacent to sea lanes and air routes in North Atlantic; one of most rugged and longest coastlines in the world

People - Norway:
Population4,627,926 (July 2007 est.)

Age structure0-14 years: 19% (male 450,612/female 430,126)
15-64 years: 66.1% (male 1,552,473/female 1,507,638)
65 years and over: 14.8% (male 291,659/female 395,418) (2007 est.)

Median agetotal: 38.7 years
male: 37.9 years
female: 39.6 years (2007 est.)

Population growth rate0.363% (2007 est.)

Birth rate11.27 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Death rate9.37 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Net migration rate1.72 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.048 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.738 male(s)/female
total population: 0.984 male(s)/female (2007 est.)

Infant mortality ratetotal: 3.64 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 3.99 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.27 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)

Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 79.67 years
male: 77.04 years
female: 82.46 years (2007 est.)

Total fertility rate1.78 children born/woman (2007 est.)

Hiv aids adult prevalence rate0.1% (2001 est.)

Hiv aids people living with hiv aids2,100 (2001 est.)

Hiv aids deathsless than 100 (2003 est.)

Nationalitynoun: Norwegian(s)
adjective: Norwegian

Ethnic groupsNorwegian, Sami 20,000

ReligionsChurch of Norway 85.7%, Pentecostal 1%, Roman Catholic 1%, other Christian 2.4%, Muslim 1.8%, other 8.1% (2004)

LanguagesBokmal Norwegian (official), Nynorsk Norwegian (official), small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities; note - Sami is official in six municipalities

Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100%

Government - Norway:
Country nameconventional long form: Kingdom of Norway
conventional short form: Norway
local long form: Kongeriket Norge
local short form: Norge

Government typeconstitutional monarchy

Capitalname: Oslo
geographic coordinates: 59 55 N, 10 45 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Dependent areasBouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard

Administrative divisions19 counties (fylker, singular - fylke); Akershus, Aust-Agder, Buskerud, Finnmark, Hedmark, Hordaland, More og Romsdal, Nordland, Nord-Trondelag, Oppland, Oslo, Ostfold, Rogaland, Sogn og Fjordane, Sor-Trondelag, Telemark, Troms, Vest-Agder, Vestfold

Independence7 June 1905 (Norway declared the union with Sweden dissolved); 26 October 1905 (Sweden agreed to the repeal of the union)

National holidayConstitution Day, 17 May (1814)

Constitution17 May 1814; amended many times

Legal systemmixture of customary law, civil law system, and common law traditions; Supreme Court renders advisory opinions to legislature when asked; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations

Suffrage18 years of age; universal

Executive branchchief of state: King HARALD V (since 17 January 1991); Heir Apparent Crown Prince HAAKON MAGNUS, son of the monarch (born 20 July 1973)
head of government: Prime Minister Jens STOLTENBERG (since 17 October 2005)
cabinet: State Council appointed by the monarch with the approval of parliament
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; following parliamentary elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch with the approval of the parliament

Legislative branchmodified unicameral Parliament or Storting (169 seats; members are elected by popular vote by proportional representation to serve four-year terms); note - in 2009 the number of seats will change to 165
elections: last held 12 September 2005 (next to be held in September 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - Labor Party 32.7%, Progress Party 22.1%, Conservative Party 14.1%, Socialist Left Party 8.8%, Christian Peoples Party 6.8%, Center Party 6.5%, Liberal Party 5.9%, Red Electoral Alliance 1.2%, other 1.9%; seats by party - Labor Party 61, Progress Party 38, Conservative Party 23, Socialist Left Party 15, Christian Peoples Party 11, Center Party 11, Liberal Party 10
note: for certain purposes, the parliament divides itself into two chambers and elects one-fourth of its membership in the Lagting and three-fourths of its membership in the Odelsting

Judicial branchSupreme Court or Hoyesterett (justices appointed by the monarch)

Political parties and leadersCenter Party [Aslaug Marie HAGA]; Christian Peoples Party [Dagfinn HOYBRATEN]; Coastal Party [Roy WAAGE]; Conservative Party [Erna SOLBERG]; Labor Party [Jens STOLTENBERG]; Liberal Party [Lars SPONHEIM]; Progress Party [Siv JENSEN]; Red Electoral Alliance [Torstein DAHLE]; Socialist Left Party [Kristin HALVORSEN]

Political pressure groups and leadersNA

International organization participationAfDB, Arctic Council, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EFTA, ESA, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM (guest), NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMEE, UNMIS, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WEU (associate), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the uschief of mission: Ambassador Knut VOLLEBAEK
chancery: 2720 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 333-6000
FAX: [1] (202) 337-0870
consulate(s) general: Houston, Minneapolis, New York, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the uschief of mission: Ambassador Benson K. WHITNEY
embassy: Henrik Ibsens gate 48, 0244 Oslo; note - the embassy will move to Huseby in the near future
mailing address: PSC 69, Box 1000, APO AE 09707
telephone: [47] (22) 44 85 50
FAX: [47] (22) 44 33 63, 56 27 51

Flag descriptionred with a blue cross outlined in white that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

Economy - Norway:
Economy overviewThe Norwegian economy is a prosperous bastion of welfare capitalism, featuring a combination of free market activity and government intervention. The government controls key areas, such as the vital petroleum sector, through large-scale state enterprises. The country is richly endowed with natural resources - petroleum, hydropower, fish, forests, and minerals - and is highly dependent on its oil production and international oil prices, with oil and gas accounting for one-third of exports. Only Saudi Arabia and Russia export more oil than Norway. Norway opted to stay out of the EU during a referendum in November 1994; nonetheless, as a member of the European Economic Area, it contributes sizably to the EU budget. The government has moved ahead with privatization. Although Norwegian oil production peaked in 2000, natural gas production is still rising. Norwegians realize that once their gas production peaks they will eventually face declining oil and gas revenues; accordingly, Norway has been saving its oil-and-gas-boosted budget surpluses in a Government Petroleum Fund, which is invested abroad and now is valued at more than $250 billion. After lackluster growth of less than 1% in 2002-03, GDP growth picked up to 3-4% in 2004-06. Norways economy remains buoyant. Domestic economic activity is, and will continue to be, the main driver of growth, supported by high consumer confidence and strong investment spending in the offshore oil and gas sector.

Gdp purchasing power parity $213.6 billion (2006 est.)

Gdp official exchange rate $264.4 billion (2006 est.)

Gdp real growth rate4.6% (2006 est.)

Gdp per capita ppp $46,300 (2006 est.)

Gdp composition by sectoragriculture: 2.3%
industry: 41.4%
services: 56.3% (2006 est.)

Labor force2.42 million (2006 est.)

Labor force by occupationagriculture: 4%
industry: 22%
services: 74% (1995)

Unemployment rate3.5% (2006 est.)

Population below poverty lineNA%

Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 4.1%
highest 10%: 21.8% (1995)

Distribution of family income gini index25.8 (2000)

Inflation rate consumer prices 2.3% (2006 est.)

Investment gross fixed 19.1% of GDP (2006 est.)

Budgetrevenues: $195.8 billion
expenditures: $133.1 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2006 est.)

Public debt44.8% of GDP (2006 est.)

Agriculture productsbarley, wheat, potatoes; pork, beef, veal, milk; fish

Industriespetroleum and gas, food processing, shipbuilding, pulp and paper products, metals, chemicals, timber, mining, textiles, fishing

Industrial production growth rate1.8% (2006 est.)

Electricity production108.9 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity consumption112.8 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity exports3.8 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity imports15.3 billion kWh (2004)

Oil production3.22 million bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil consumption244,300 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil exports3.018 million bbl/day (2004)

Oil imports91,930 bbl/day (2004)

Oil proved reserves8.5 billion bbl (1 January 2005)

Natural gas production83.49 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas consumption8.09 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas exports75.4 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas imports0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas proved reserves2.085 trillion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)

Current account balance$63.33 billion (2006 est.)

Exports$122.6 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports commoditiespetroleum and petroleum products, machinery and equipment, metals, chemicals, ships, fish

Exports partnersUK 26.6%, Germany 12.2%, Netherlands 10.4%, France 8.2%, Sweden 6.5%, US 5.9% (2006)

Imports$59.9 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Imports commoditiesmachinery and equipment, chemicals, metals, foodstuffs

Imports partnersSweden 15%, Germany 13.5%, Denmark 6.9%, UK 6.4%, China 5.7%, US 5.3%, Netherlands 4.1% (2006)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$49.62 billion (August 2006 est.)

Economic aid donorODA, $1.4 billion (1998)

Debt external$350.3 billion; note - Norway is a net external creditor (30 June 2006)

Currency code Norwegian krone (NOK)

Exchange ratesNorwegian kroner per US dollar - 6.4117 (2006), 6.4425 (2005), 6.7408 (2004), 7.0802 (2003), 7.9838 (2002)

Communications - Norway:
Fiscal yearcalendar year

Telephones main lines in use2.055 million (2006)

Telephones mobile cellular5.041 million (2006)

Telephone systemgeneral assessment: modern in all respects; one of the most advanced telecommunications networks in Europe
domestic: Norway has a domestic satellite system; moreover, the prevalence of rural areas encourages the wide use of cellular mobile systems instead of fixed-wire systems
international: country code - 47; 2 buried coaxial cable systems; 4 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - NA Eutelsat, NA Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Norway shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Sweden) (1999)

Radio broadcast stationsAM 5, FM at least 650, shortwave 1 (1998)

Television broadcast stations360 (plus 2,729 repeaters) (1995)

Internet country code.no

Internet hosts1.364 million (2006)

Internet users4.074 million (2006)

Transportation - Norway:
Airports99 (2006)

Airports with paved runwaystotal: 67
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 13
under 914 m: 29 (2006)

Airports with unpaved runwaystotal: 32
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 26 (2006)

Heliports1 (2006)

Pipelinescondensate 508 km; gas 5,910 km; oil 2,557 km; oil/gas/water 746 km (2006)

Railwaystotal: 4,043 km
standard gauge: 4,043 km 1.435-m gauge (2,509 km electrified) (2006)

Roadwaystotal: 92,513 km
paved: 71,832 km (includes 664 km of expressways)
unpaved: 20,681 km (2005)

Waterways1,577 km (2007)

Merchant marinetotal: 724 ships (1000 GRT or over) 14,472,103 GRT/20,245,353 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 67, cargo 153, chemical tanker 150, container 2, liquefied gas 79, passenger/cargo 121, petroleum tanker 75, refrigerated cargo 9, roll on/roll off 19, specialized tanker 2, vehicle carrier 47
foreign-owned: 168 (China 3, Cyprus 2, Denmark 32, Estonia 1, Finland 4, Greece 1, Hong Kong 55, Iceland 4, Italy 4, Japan 1, Lithuania 1, Monaco 4, Netherlands 3, Poland 2, Saudi Arabia 3, Sweden 28, UAE 1, UK 6, US 13)
registered in other countries: 861 (Antigua and Barbuda 11, Australia 1, Bahamas 259, Barbados 29, Belize 2, Bermuda 5, Brazil 2, Cambodia 1, Canada 1, Cayman Islands 2, China 1, Comoros 1, Cook Islands 1, Cyprus 16, Denmark 3, Dominica 1, Ecuador 1, Estonia 2, Faroe Islands 4, Finland 1, France 1, French Southern and Antarctic Lands 12, Gibraltar 18, Hong Kong 26, Indonesia 1, Isle of Man 27, Liberia 38, Libya 1, Malta 49, Marshall Islands 65, Mexico 1, Netherlands 7, Netherlands Antilles 5, Nigeria 1, Panama 66, Philippines 3, Portugal 4, Russia 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 16, Singapore 90, Spain 7, Sweden 7, Thailand 30, Tonga 1, UK 36, US 2, unknown 2) (2006)

Ports and terminalsBorg Havn, Bergen, Mo i Rana, Molde, Mongstad, Narvik, Oslo, Sture

Military - Norway:
Military branchesNorwegian Army (Haeren), Royal Norwegian Navy (Kongelige Norske Sjoeforsvaret, RNoN; includes Coastal Rangers and Coast Guard (Kystvakt)), Royal Norwegian Air Force (Kongelige Norske Luftforsvaret, RNoAF), Home Guard (Heimevernet, HV) (2006)

Military service age and obligation18-44 years of age for compulsory military service; 16 years of age in wartime; 17 years of age for male volunteers; 18 years of age for women; 12-month service obligation, in practice shortened to 8 to 9 months; reserve obligation to age 35-60; 16 years of age for volunteers to the Home Guard, who serve 6-month duty tours; (2004)

Manpower available for military servicemales age 18-49: 1,014,592
females age 18-49: 982,734 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military servicemales age 18-49: 827,016
females age 18-49: 801,358 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annuallymales age 18-49: 29,179
females age 18-49: 28,023 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures percent of gdp1.9% (2005 est.)

This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>