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Introduction - Luxembourg:

BackgroundFounded in 963, Luxembourg became a grand duchy in 1815 and an independent state under the Netherlands. It lost more than half of its territory to Belgium in 1839, but gained a larger measure of autonomy. Full independence was attained in 1867. Overrun by Germany in both World Wars, it ended its neutrality in 1948 when it entered into the Benelux Customs Union and when it joined NATO the following year. In 1957, Luxembourg became one of the six founding countries of the European Economic Community (later the European Union), and in 1999 it joined the euro currency area.

Location - Luxembourg:
LocationWestern Europe, between France and Germany

Geographic coordinates49 45 N, 6 10 E

Map referencesEurope

Areatotal: 2,586 sq km
land: 2,586 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area comparativeslightly smaller than Rhode Island

Land boundariestotal: 359 km
border countries: Belgium 148 km, France 73 km, Germany 138 km

Coastline0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)

Climatemodified continental with mild winters, cool summers

Terrainmostly gently rolling uplands with broad, shallow valleys; uplands to slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to Moselle flood plain in the southeast

Elevation extremeslowest point: Moselle River 133 m
highest point: Buurgplaatz 559 m

Natural resourcesiron ore (no longer exploited), arable land

Land usearable land: 23.94%
permanent crops: 0.39%
other: 75.67% (includes Belgium) (2005)

Irrigated landNA

Natural hazardsNA

Environment current issuesair and water pollution in urban areas, soil pollution of farmland

Environment international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification

Geography notelandlocked; the only Grand Duchy in the world

People - Luxembourg:
Population480,222 (July 2007 est.)

Age structure0-14 years: 18.8% (male 46,478/female 43,656)
15-64 years: 66.6% (male 161,466/female 158,261)
65 years and over: 14.7% (male 28,530/female 41,831) (2007 est.)

Median agetotal: 38.9 years
male: 37.9 years
female: 39.9 years (2007 est.)

Population growth rate1.207% (2007 est.)

Birth rate11.84 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Death rate8.42 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Net migration rate8.64 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Sex ratioat birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.065 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.682 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2007 est.)

Infant mortality ratetotal: 4.68 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.67 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.69 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)

Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 79.03 years
male: 75.76 years
female: 82.52 years (2007 est.)

Total fertility rate1.78 children born/woman (2007 est.)

Hiv aids adult prevalence rate0.2% (2001 est.)

Hiv aids people living with hiv aidsless than 500 (2003 est.)

Hiv aids deathsless than 100 (2003 est.)

Nationalitynoun: Luxembourger(s)
adjective: Luxembourg

Ethnic groupsCeltic base (with French and German blend), Portuguese, Italian, Slavs (from Montenegro, Albania, and Kosovo) and European (guest and resident workers)

ReligionsRoman Catholic 87%, other (includes Protestant, Jewish, and Muslim) 13% (2000)

LanguagesLuxembourgish (national language), German (administrative language), French (administrative language)

Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100% (2000 est.)

Government - Luxembourg:
Country nameconventional long form: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
conventional short form: Luxembourg
local long form: Grand Duche de Luxembourg
local short form: Luxembourg

Government typeconstitutional monarchy

Capitalname: Luxembourg
geographic coordinates: 49 36 N, 6 07 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions3 districts; Diekirch, Grevenmacher, Luxembourg

Independence1839 (from the Netherlands)

National holidayNational Day (Birthday of Grand Duchess Charlotte) 23 June; note - the actual date of birth was 23 January 1896, but the festivities were shifted by five months to allow observance during a more favorable time of year

Constitution17 October 1868; occasional revisions

Legal systembased on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branchchief of state: Grand Duke HENRI (since 7 October 2000); Heir Apparent Prince GUILLAUME (son of the monarch)
head of government: Prime Minister Jean-Claude JUNCKER (since 1 January 1995); Deputy Prime Minister Jean ASSELBORN (since 31 July 2004)
cabinet: Council of Ministers recommended by the prime minister and appointed by the monarch
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; following popular elections to the Chamber of Deputies, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch; the deputy prime minister is appointed by the monarch; they are responsible to the Chamber of Deputies
note: government coalition - CSV and LSAP

Legislative branchunicameral Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des Deputes (60 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 13 June 2004 (next to be held by June 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - CSV 36.1%, LSAP 23.4%, DP 16.1%, Green Party 11.6%, ADR 10%, other 2.8%; seats by party - CSV 24, LSAP 14, DP 10, Green Party 7, ADR 5
note: there is also a Council of State that serves as an advisory body to the Chamber of Deputies; the Council of State has 21 members appointed by the Grand Duke on the advice of the prime minister

Judicial branchjudicial courts and tribunals (3 Justices of the Peace, 2 district courts, and 1 Supreme Court of Appeals); administrative courts and tribunals (State Prosecutors Office, administrative courts and tribunals, and the Constitutional Court); judges for all courts are appointed for life by the monarch

Political parties and leadersAction Committee for Democracy and Justice or ADR [Gast GIBERYEN]; Christian Social Peoples Party or CSV [Francois BILTGEN] (also known as Christian Social Party or PCS); Democratic Party or DP [Claude MEISCH]; Green Party [Francois BAUSCH]; Luxembourg Socialist Workers Party or LSAP [Alex BODRY]; dei Lenk/la Gauche (the Left); other minor parties

Political pressure groups and leadersABBL (bankers association); ALEBA (financial sector trade union); Centrale Paysanne (federation of agricultural producers); CEP (professional sector chamber); CGFP (trade union representing civil service); Chambre de Commerce (Chamber of Commerce); Chambre des Metiers (Chamber of Artisans); FEDIL (federation of industrialists); Greenpeace (environment protection); LCGP (center-right trade union); Mouvement Ecologique (protection of ecology); OGBL (center-left trade union)


Diplomatic representation in the uschief of mission: Ambassador Joseph WEYLAND
chancery: 2200 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-4171/72
FAX: [1] (202) 328-8270
consulate(s) general: New York, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the uschief of mission: Ambassador Ann WAGNER
embassy: 22 Boulevard Emmanuel Servais, L-2535 Luxembourg City
mailing address: American Embassy Luxembourg, Unit 1410, APO AE 09126-1410 (official mail); American Embassy Luxembourg, PSC 9, Box 9500, APO AE 09123 (personal mail)
telephone: [352] 46 01 23
FAX: [352] 46 14 01

Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and light blue; similar to the flag of the Netherlands, which uses a darker blue and is shorter; design was based on the flag of France

Economy - Luxembourg:
Economy overviewThis stable, high-income economy - benefiting from its proximity to France, Belgium, and Germany - features solid growth, low inflation, and low unemployment. The industrial sector, initially dominated by steel, has become increasingly diversified to include chemicals, rubber, and other products. Growth in the financial sector, which now accounts for about 28% of GDP, has more than compensated for the decline in steel. Most banks are foreign-owned and have extensive foreign dealings. Agriculture is based on small family-owned farms. The economy depends on foreign and cross-border workers for about 60% of its labor force. Although Luxembourg, like all EU members, has suffered from the global economic slump, the country enjoys an extraordinarily high standard of living - GDP per capita ranks second in the world.

Gdp purchasing power parity $33.87 billion (2006 est.)

Gdp official exchange rate $34.53 billion (2006 est.)

Gdp real growth rate6.2% (2006 est.)

Gdp per capita ppp $71,400 (2006 est.)

Gdp composition by sectoragriculture: 1%
industry: 13%
services: 86% (2005 est.)

Labor force203,000 of whom 121,600 are foreign cross-border workers commuting primarily from France, Belgium, and Germany (2006 est.)

Labor force by occupationagriculture: 1%
industry: 13%
services: 86% (2004 est.)

Unemployment rate4.1% (2006 est.)

Population below poverty lineNA%

Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate consumer prices 2.6% (2006 est.)

Investment gross fixed 18.3% of GDP (2006 est.)

Budgetrevenues: $19.07 billion
expenditures: $19.79 billion; including capital expenditures of $975.5 million (2006 est.)

Agriculture productswine, grapes, barley, oats, potatoes, wheat, fruits; dairy products, livestock products

Industriesbanking and financial services, iron and steel, information technology, telecommunications, cargo transportation, food processing, chemicals, metal products, engineering, tires, glass, aluminum, tourism

Industrial production growth rate4.3% (2006 est.)

Electricity production3.203 billion kWh (2005 est.)

Electricity consumption6.14 billion kWh (2005 est.)

Electricity exports2.346 billion kWh (2005 est.)

Electricity imports5.287 billion kWh (2005 est.)

Oil production0 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil consumption62,420 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil exports283 bbl/day (2004)

Oil imports61,070 bbl/day (2004)

Oil proved reserves0 bbl

Natural gas production0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas consumption1.361 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas exports0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas imports1.361 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Current account balance$4.63 billion (2006 est.)

Exports$19.55 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports commoditiesmachinery and equipment, steel products, chemicals, rubber products, glass

Exports partnersGermany 19.3%, France 15.5%, Italy 9.5%, UK 9.5%, Belgium 8.8%, Spain 5.3%, Netherlands 4.5% (2006)

Imports$24.22 billion c.i.f. (2006 est.)

Imports commoditiesminerals, metals, foodstuffs, quality consumer goods

Imports partnersBelgium 26.3%, Germany 20.1%, China 16.7%, France 8.5%, UK 5.5%, Netherlands 4.2% (2006)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$232.2 million (August 2006 est.)

Economic aid donorODA, $235.59 million (2004)

Debt external$NA

Currency code euro (EUR)
note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to be used by financial institutions of member countries; on 1 January 2002, the euro became the sole currency for everyday transactions within the member countries

Exchange rateseuros per US dollar - 0.7964 (2006), 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004), 0.886 (2003), 1.0626 (2002)

Communications - Luxembourg:
Fiscal yearcalendar year

Telephones main lines in use246,700 (2006)

Telephones mobile cellular713,800 (2006)

Telephone systemgeneral assessment: highly developed, completely automated and efficient system, mainly buried cables
domestic: nationwide cellular telephone system; buried cable
international: country code - 352; 3 channels leased on TAT-6 coaxial submarine cable (Europe to North America)

Radio broadcast stationsAM 2, FM 9, shortwave 2 (1999)

Television broadcast stations5 (1999)

Internet country code.lu

Internet hosts88,661 (2006)

Internet users339,000 (2006)

Transportation - Luxembourg:
Airports2 (2006)

Airports with paved runwaystotal: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (2006)

Airports with unpaved runwaystotal: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2006)

Heliports1 (2006)

Pipelinesgas 155 km (2006)

Railwaystotal: 275 km
standard gauge: 275 km 1.435-m gauge (243 km electrified) (2006)

Roadwaystotal: 5,227 km
paved: 5,227 km (includes 147 km of expressways) (2004)

Waterways37 km (on Moselle River) (2007)

Merchant marinetotal: 42 ships (1000 GRT or over) 557,636 GRT/792,069 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 6, chemical tanker 16, container 7, liquefied gas 2, passenger 3, petroleum tanker 3, roll on/roll off 5
foreign-owned: 42 (Belgium 9, Finland 4, France 14, Germany 10, Netherlands 2, US 3) (2006)

Ports and terminalsMertert

Military - Luxembourg:
Military branchesArmy

Military service age and obligation17 years of age for voluntary military service; soldiers under 18 are not deployed into combat or with peacekeeping missions (2004)

Manpower available for military servicemales age 17-49: 110,867
females age 17-49: 108,758 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military servicemales age 17-49: 90,279
females age 17-49: 88,638 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annuallymales age 18-49: 2,775
females age 17-49: 2,703 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures percent of gdp0.9% (2005 est.)

This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>