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Introduction - Chad:

BackgroundChad, part of Frances African holdings until 1960, endured three decades of civil warfare as well as invasions by Libya before a semblance of peace was finally restored in 1990. The government eventually drafted a democratic constitution, and held flawed presidential elections in 1996 and 2001. In 1998, a rebellion broke out in northern Chad, which sporadically flares up despite several peace agreements between the government and the rebels. In 2005 new rebel groups emerged in western Sudan and have made probing attacks into eastern Chad. Power remains in the hands of an ethnic minority. In June 2005, President Idriss DEBY held a referendum successfully removing constitutional term limits.

Location - Chad:
LocationCentral Africa, south of Libya

Geographic coordinates15 00 N, 19 00 E

Map referencesAfrica

Areatotal: 1.284 million sq km
land: 1,259,200 sq km
water: 24,800 sq km

Area comparativeslightly more than three times the size of California

Land boundariestotal: 5,968 km
border countries: Cameroon 1,094 km, Central African Republic 1,197 km, Libya 1,055 km, Niger 1,175 km, Nigeria 87 km, Sudan 1,360 km

Coastline0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)

Climatetropical in south, desert in north

Terrainbroad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in northwest, lowlands in south

Elevation extremeslowest point: Djourab Depression 160 m
highest point: Emi Koussi 3,415 m

Natural resourcespetroleum, uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad), gold, limestone, sand and gravel, salt

Land usearable land: 2.8%
permanent crops: 0.02%
other: 97.18% (2005)

Irrigated land300 sq km (2003)

Natural hazardshot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north; periodic droughts; locust plagues

Environment current issuesinadequate supplies of potable water; improper waste disposal in rural areas contributes to soil and water pollution; desertification

Environment international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

Geography notelandlocked; Lake Chad is the most significant water body in the Sahel

People - Chad:
Population9,885,661 (July 2007 est.)

Age structure0-14 years: 47.3% (male 2,366,496/female 2,308,155)
15-64 years: 49.8% (male 2,250,211/female 2,676,076)
65 years and over: 2.9% (male 120,666/female 164,057) (2007 est.)

Median agetotal: 16.3 years
male: 15 years
female: 17.4 years (2007 est.)

Population growth rate2.32% (2007 est.)

Birth rate42.35 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Death rate16.69 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Net migration rate-2.46 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Sex ratioat birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.025 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.841 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.736 male(s)/female
total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (2007 est.)

Infant mortality ratetotal: 102.07 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 108.27 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 95.62 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)

Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 47.2 years
male: 46.17 years
female: 48.27 years (2007 est.)

Total fertility rate5.56 children born/woman (2007 est.)

Hiv aids adult prevalence rate4.8% (2003 est.)

Hiv aids people living with hiv aids200,000 (2003 est.)

Hiv aids deaths18,000 (2003 est.)

Nationalitynoun: Chadian(s)
adjective: Chadian

Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis (2007)

Ethnic groupsSara 27.7%, Arab 12.3%, Mayo-Kebbi 11.5%, Kanem-Bornou 9%, Ouaddai 8.7%, Hadjarai 6.7%, Tandjile 6.5%, Gorane 6.3%, Fitri-Batha 4.7%, other 6.4%, unknown 0.3% (1993 census)

ReligionsMuslim 53.1%, Catholic 20.1%, Protestant 14.2%, animist 7.3%, other 0.5%, unknown 1.7%, atheist 3.1% (1993 census)

LanguagesFrench (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), more than 120 different languages and dialects

Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write French or Arabic
total population: 47.5%
male: 56%
female: 39.3% (2003 est.)

Government - Chad:
Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Chad
conventional short form: Chad
local long form: Republique du Tchad/Jumhuriyat Tshad
local short form: Tchad/Tshad

Government typerepublic

Capitalname: NDjamena
geographic coordinates: 12 06 N, 15 02 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions18 regions (regions, singular - region); Batha, Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti, Chari-Baguirmi, Guera, Hadjer-Lamis, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mandoul, Mayo-Kebbi Est, Mayo-Kebbi Ouest, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Tandjile, Ville de NDjamena, Wadi Fira

Independence11 August 1960 (from France)

National holidayIndependence Day, 11 August (1960)

Constitutionpassed by referendum 31 March 1996; a June 2005 referendum removed constitutional term limits

Legal systembased on French civil law system and Chadian customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage18 years of age; universal

Executive branchchief of state: President Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno (since 4 December 1990)
head of government: Prime Minister Nouradine Delwa KASSIRE Koumakoye (since 26 February 2007)
cabinet: Council of State, members appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote to serve five-year term; if no candidate receives at least 50% of the total vote, the two candidates receiving the most votes must stand for a second round of voting; last held 3 May 2006 (next to be held by May 2011); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno reelected president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY 64.7%, Delwa Kassire KOUMAKOYE 15.1%, Albert Pahimi PADACKE 7.8%, Mahamat ABDOULAYE 7.1%, Brahim KOULAMALLAH 5.3%; note - a June 2005 national referendum altered the constitution removing presidential term limits and permitting Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno to run for reelection

Legislative branchunicameral National Assembly (155 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); note - the 1996 constitution called for a Senate that has never been formed
elections: National Assembly - last held 21 April 2002 (next to be held by 2007)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MPS 110, RDP 12, FAR 9, RNDP 5, URD 5, UNDR 3, other 11

Judicial branchSupreme Court; Court of Appeal; Criminal Courts; Magistrate Courts

Political parties and leadersFederation Action for the Republic or FAR [Ngarledjy YORONGAR]; National Rally for Development and Progress or RNDP [Delwa Kassire KOUMAKOYE]; National Union for Democracy and Renewal or UNDR [Saleh KEBZABO]; Party for Liberty and Development or PLD [Ibni Oumar Mahamat SALEH]; Patriotic Salvation Movement or MPS [Mahamat Saleh AHMAT, chairman]; Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Lol Mahamat CHOUA]; Union for Democracy and Republic or UDR [Jean ALINGUE]; Union for Renewal and Democracy or URD [Gen. Wadal Abdelkader KAMOUGUE]

Political pressure groups and leadersNA


Diplomatic representation in the uschief of mission: Ambassador Mahamat Adam BECHIR
chancery: 2002 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 462-4009
FAX: [1] (202) 265-1937

Diplomatic representation from the uschief of mission: Ambassador Marc M. WALL
embassy: Avenue Felix Eboue, NDjamena
mailing address: B. P. 413, NDjamena
telephone: [235] 516-211
FAX: [235] 515-654

Flag descriptionthree equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; similar to the flag of Romania; also similar to the flags of Andorra and Moldova, both of which have a national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; design was based on the flag of France

Economy - Chad:
Economy overviewChads primarily agricultural economy will continue to be boosted by major foreign direct investment projects in the oil sector that began in 2000. Over 80% of Chads population relies on subsistence farming and livestock raising for its livelihood. Chads economy has long been handicapped by its landlocked position, high energy costs, and a history of instability. Chad relies on foreign assistance and foreign capital for most public and private sector investment projects. A consortium led by two US companies has been investing $3.7 billion to develop oil reserves - estimated at 1 billion barrels - in southern Chad. The nations total oil reserves have been estimated to be 2 billion barrels. Oil production came on stream in late 2003. Chad began to export oil in 2004. Cotton, cattle, and gum arabic provide the bulk of Chads non-oil export earnings.

Gdp purchasing power parity $14.98 billion (2006 est.)

Gdp official exchange rate $4.967 billion (2006 est.)

Gdp real growth rate1% (2006 est.)

Gdp per capita ppp $1,500 (2006 est.)

Gdp composition by sectoragriculture: 32.5%
industry: 26.6%
services: 40.8% (2006 est.)

Labor force2.719 million (1993)

Labor force by occupationagriculture: 80% (subsistence farming, herding, and fishing)
industry and services: 20%

Unemployment rateNA%

Population below poverty line80% (2001 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate consumer prices 4% (2006 est.)

Investment gross fixed 9.2% of GDP (2006 est.)

Budgetrevenues: $617.3 million
expenditures: $877.6 million; including capital expenditures of $146 million (2006 est.)

Agriculture productscotton, sorghum, millet, peanuts, rice, potatoes, manioc (tapioca); cattle, sheep, goats, camels

Industriesoil, cotton textiles, meatpacking, beer brewing, natron (sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes, construction materials

Industrial production growth rate5% (1995)

Electricity production94 million kWh (2004)

Electricity consumption87.42 million kWh (2004)

Electricity exports0 kWh (2004)

Electricity imports0 kWh (2004)

Oil production225,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil consumption1,460 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil exports170,000 bbl/day

Oil importsNA bbl/day

Oil proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2005)

Natural gas production0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas consumption0 cu m (2004 est.)

Current account balance-$324.1 million (2006 est.)

Exports$4.342 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports commoditiescotton, cattle, gum arabic, oil

Exports partnersUS 79.2%, China 10.2%, Taiwan 4% (2006)

Imports$823.1 million f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Imports commoditiesmachinery and transportation equipment, industrial goods, foodstuffs, textiles

Imports partnersFrance 19.1%, Cameroon 18.1%, US 12.9%, Germany 7.5%, Saudi Arabia 5.1%, Belgium 5% (2006)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$352.8 million (2006 est.)

Debt external$1.5 billion (2003 est.)

Economic aid recipientODA, $246.9 million (2003 est.)

Currency code Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF); note - responsible authority is the Bank of the Central African States

Exchange ratesCommunaute Financiere Africaine francs (XAF) per US dollar - 522.59 (2006), 527.47 (2005), 528.29 (2004), 581.2 (2003), 696.99 (2002)

Communications - Chad:
Fiscal yearcalendar year

Telephones main lines in use13,000 (2006)

Telephones mobile cellular466,100 (2006)

Telephone systemgeneral assessment: primitive system
domestic: fair system of radiotelephone communication stations
international: country code - 235; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stationsAM 2, FM 4, shortwave 5 (2001)

Television broadcast stations1 (2001)

Internet country code.td

Internet hosts9 (2006)

Internet users60,000 (2006)

Transportation - Chad:
Airports52 (2006)

Airports with paved runwaystotal: 7
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2006)

Airports with unpaved runwaystotal: 45
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 21
under 914 m: 10 (2006)

Pipelinesoil 205 km (2006)

Roadwaystotal: 33,400 km
paved: 267 km
unpaved: 33,133 km (1999)

WaterwaysChari and Legone rivers are navigable only in wet season (2006)

Military - Chad:
Military branchesChadian National Army (Armee Nationale Tchadienne, ANT), Chadian Air Force (Force Aerienne Tchadienne, FAT), Gendarmerie (2007)

Military service age and obligation20 years of age for conscripts, with 3-year service obligation; 18 years of age for volunteers; no minimum age restriction for volunteers with consent from a guardian; women are subject to 1 year of compulsory military or civic service at age of 21 (2004)

Manpower available for military servicemales age 20-49: 1,527,580
females age 20-49: 1,629,510 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military servicemales age 20-49: 794,988
females age 20-49: 849,500 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annuallymales age 18-49: 94,536
females age 20-49: 93,521 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures percent of gdp4.2% (2006)

Disputes internationalsince 2003, Janjawid armed militia and the Sudanese military have driven hundreds of thousands of Darfur residents into Chad; Chad remains an important mediator in the Sudanese civil conflict, reducing tensions with Sudan arising from cross-border banditry; Chadian Aozou rebels reside in southern Libya; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commissions admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty, which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries

This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>